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After all, if rulers have been accountable for any chaos within the empire, they need to deserve some credit score for social stability and prosperity as well. It was a political and mental reorientation for the literati, or a shift of focus from the ruler to the people and from the imperial state to the rest of the society at massive. 51 Yet, at least during Zhang’s lifetime, the emperor was too younger and too inexperienced to be a harsh grasp. To that extent, Zhang was really far more lucky than many other scholar-officials in late imperial occasions. To that extent, it summarizes much of the moral and political meanings of the literati’s authorities service.

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They went to the identical small set of schools—Yale, Harvard, Princeton, and a few others—and many distinguished themselves throughout World War II. After the war, they set about working the nation. And like FDR, JFK dropped at Washington a cadre of specialists and teachers that collectively got here to be known as “the finest and the brightest”—men like Robert McNamara and McGeorge Bundy. “You can’t beat brains,” Kennedy was fond of saying and he needed to be surrounded by them. The journalist Walter Lippmann in 1914, the yr he publishedDrift and Masteryin which he heralded the advantages of experience .

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